3MMuda = waste in the process, Mura = unequal workload, Muri = overload
4PPhilosophy, Process, People and Partners, Problem Solving – Toyota management model by J. Liker
5SSort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Self-discipline. Five principles for creating a visual work environment
5WhyMethodology for finding root causes of problems, involved asking a question “WHY’ five times in a row
5W2HAnswering questions: What, When, Where, Who, Why, How and How Many, a method for describing an event or problem in detail
8DEight Disciplines, an 8-step method for preventing quality problems used by Ford Motor Company
A3A report in a single A3 sheet format that forces a writer to report only relevant facts. Recently synonymous with A3 Problem Solving method – see PSG
AndonA system for immediate notification of a problem by light and sound signals
Autonomationjap. Jidoka, "Thinking Machine", a system that causes equipment to stop automatically if a defective product has been manufactured
Autonomous Maintenance7-step program for the systematic involvement of production operators in maintenance
BMBreakdown Maintenance, maintenance activities based on failure management
Buffer StockSupermarket buffer zone associated with periodic deviations from average customer demand. See also Cycle Stock and Safety Stock
CBMCondition Based Maintenance, maintenance activities based on condition of a part, and not scheduled activities based on calendar or run time
Continuous FlowProduction setup with an uninterrupted processing chain, with no possibility of collecting unlimited WIP
Cycle StockSupermarket buffer zone associated with a waiting period for production of a part due to production lead time. See also Buffer Stock and Safety Stock
Cycle TimeA manufacturing time required to make one product, measured as a period between two products coming off a line, often confused with Throughput time
Deming, W. EdwardAmerican specialist in the field of quality assurance, recognized as the creator of many quality tools, PDCA
Discrete ManufacturingManufacturing industry where single pieces of final product are produced, using machines or manual work e.g., automotive, furniture, electronics, etc. See also Process Industry
DMAICDefine, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control. Methodology for identifying root causes of problems and improving processes employed in Six Sigma
DPMODefects Per Million Opportunities
Drum-Buffer-RopeProduction control method derived from E. Goldratt's Theory of Constraints
EEMEarly Equipment Management, systematic program for developing new equipment centered on predicting and removing design and other problems before acquisition
FIFOFirst-In-First-Out, production and storage control method
FMEAFailure Mode & Effects Analysis – an analysis for estimating occurrence and risk of problems
Focused ImprovementSee Problem Solving
GembaA place where the process takes place: office, workshop, factory, or warehouse
HeijunkaLeveling the workload, prevents under and over production loading
Hoshin KanriStrategic planning where policies and goals are communicated to generate support
IMPACT/EFFORT MatrixA diagram that shows the relationship between implementation investment and expected benefits
IntervalA typical period between production runs of the same part number
Ishikawa Diagrama.k.a. Cause-and-Effect diagram or Fish Bone diagram, shows all potential causes of the occurrence of a problem
JBS Job Breakdown Sheet, an instruction sheet used by a trainer when instructing using TWI method
Jidokasee Autonomation
Just-In-TimeA production system in which products are delivered exactly in the required quantity, at the required time and place
Kamishibaijap. story in a visual form. Kami = paper, shibai = art/drama. A Kamishibai board visually shows current state of a given aspect of management, e.g., control over the application of standards.
Kanbanjap. Card, refers to a signal that generates demand for a given product
KaizenContinuous improvement through small steps
Kaizen BlitzA focused team event that analyzes the current state of a process, develops an improvement plan and immediately implements most of the actions, typical duration 2 to 5 days
Kick offCeremony of starting an implementation process of e.g., Lean Management
Kobetsu Kaizensee PSG
Lead TimeTime required for a product or service to be delivered to a customer, typically measured from order entry to product shipment
Lean Management / ManufacturingGeneral name of a management system based on systematic elimination of waste from processes
Life Cycle CostingCalculating total costs over the entire life of equipment, including development, acquisition, upkeep and maintenance, recycling
Makigamijap. a roll of paper. A mapping technique typically used to visualize administrative process flow
MRPMaterial Resource Planning, production control system that incorporates production schedule and efficiency of processes
MTBFMean Time Between Failures, an average time between occurrences of a machine breakdown
MTTRMean Time To Repair, an average time needed to repair breakdowns
MUDAjap. Waste, all non-value adding activities, typically defined in 7 categories, see also 3M
MilkmanReplenishes supermarkets and delivers parts to workstations
NVA – Non-Value AddedActivities that do not add value to the product or service from a customer perspective, see also VA and MUDA
OEEOverall Equipment Effectiveness, OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality
One-Piece-FlowProcessing a product or service in batches of one, allows for maximum flexibility
Ohno, TaiichiEmployee of Toyota, considered the main creator of many Lean Manufacturing tools
Operational ExcellenceA term used interchangeably with Lean Management, used to describe an elevated level of continuous improvement performance
OPLOne Point Lesson, a simple one-page visual instruction that references only one aspect of a task
PacemakerA production process that sets the rate of material flow for the entire value stream
PDCAPlan-Do-Check-Act, method for implementing small improvements popularized by Dr. Deming
Poka-Yokejap. Mistake-Proofing, devices and methods that prevent errors or automatically detects defects
Pareto principle20% of all causes cause 80% of all effects
Planned MaintenanceA set of good preventive and predictive practices used by a maintenance department, often referred to as Professional Maintenance
PSGProblem Solving Groups. A team approach to identify and remove root causes of problems using A3 method. Also called Focused Improvement, Kobetsu Kaizen, Small Group Activities
Process IndustryAn industry where processing raw material changes its form. Characterized by batch production, e.g., chemical, food, pharmaceuticals. See also "Discrete Manufacturing"
PULL SystemProduction system that replenishes stocks / schedules work based on consumption by the downstream processes. See also PUSH System
PUSH SystemProduction system that schedules work or replenishes stocks based on forecasting, process efficiency and predictable material consumption
QX MatrixStandardization tool for solving known issues
RCMReliability Centered Maintenance, a maintenance approach focused on failure prevention
Safety StockSupermarket buffer zone that protects against production downtime
Senseijap. teacher
Sequenced PullInventory control method through FIFO queues and a customer-defined production plan sequence
SMEDSingle Minute Exchange of Die, method for reducing changeover time to less than 10 minutes
Six SigmaDMAIC-based problem-solving method, supported by specialists: Black Belt, Green Belt
SPCStatistical Process Control, method for analyzing process quality based on statistical analysis of samples, often used for incoming inspection
SupermarketA storage space managed by Kanban
Shutdown MaintenanceA maintenance system based on periodic production shutdowns to allow for inspections, prevention and overhauls
SOP Standard Operating Procedure, a visual instruction that standardizes a sequence of steps in an operation
Spaghetti diagramA map showing typical travel routes by operators and material, allows to identify waste
SQCDMESafety, Quality, Cost, Delivery, Morale, Environment, denotes a balanced score card of KPI’s to monitor all aspects of organizational performance
TAKT timeCycle time that synchronizes the pace of production with customer demand
TBMTime Based Maintenance, maintenance activities based on a predetermined schedule
Throughput timeTime lapsed from start to finish of a manufacturing operation for one product, see also Lead Time
TPMTotal Productive Maintenance, a maintenance system focused on prevention and involvement of production operators
TPSToyota Production System, a system of production used in the Toyota plants, referred to as Lean Manufacturing elsewhere
TOCTheory of Constraints, created by E. Gooldratt, based on improving product flow by managing bottlenecks
TWITraining Within Industry, method for training in new skills developed in the USA during World War II
WIPWork in Process, in process inventory
VA – Value AddedActivities that add value to a product or service from the customer perspective, see also NVA
VPMVisual Performance Management based on regular Gemba walks, visualization of results and a cascading problem-solving system
VSMValue Stream Mapping, a technique developed in Toyota for mapping production flow
Work samplingStatistical technique based on observations of categories of activities performed by employees
WCMWorld Class Manufacturing. A term often used interchangeably with Lean Manufacturing, differs in deployment methodology
Work Combination ChartA graphing technique developed by Toyota that displays time intervals of operator interacting with a machine during one production cycle
Zero Quality ControlQuality built into a process based on inspection at the source. Characterized by methods and tools that either prevent an error or detect a defect before it reaches the next process. See Poka-Yoke and Jidoka